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Analysis

The concept of analysis — and what it means to complete one — differs widely depending on the discourse community you’re addressing. In the social sciences and the “hard” sciences, analyzing data generally comes after a long process of gathering and sorting data (or, when using more inductive methodologies, the analysis might happen along the […]

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Epistemology

Epistemology deals with the nature and study of knowledge: what is known (or obscured), what is considered valid (or invalidated), and the methods by which knowledge is made (or ignored). It’s important to keep in mind that epistemic positions are created (and malleable) rather than absolute. For example, for many years in many academic communities, […]

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Exigence

Rhetorician Lloyd Bitzer (1968) defined exigence as “an imperfection marked by urgency; it is a defect, an obstacle, something waiting to be done, a thing which is other than it should be” (6). To establish exigence in your project, think about what is defective, what is waiting to be done, or what is other than […]

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Discourse Community

Discourse communities are groups of communicators comprised of people who maintain an evolving set of goals, conventions, and vocabulary (Swales). Within a single academic field, there are commonly multiple academic discourse communities (though discourse communities also exist outside of academia). A single person is always a member of multiple — and sometimes competing — discourse […]

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Summary

Summarizing generally involves finding and (briefly) stating the most important ideas in a text in your own words. This sounds easy. But as anyone who has attempted to write a summary can attest, it’s a lot harder than it looks! Remember that in order to write an effective summary, it’s not necessary for you to […]

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Synthesis

Writing a synthesis generally involves engaging multiple texts by discussing how they relate to (or depart from) a common theme. Synthesizing information generally requires a writer to locate and explain a common theme across a large body of information. A synthesis might: 1. Show similarities and differences between two (or more) texts or key concepts […]

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Source: https://malswrites.commons.gc.cuny.edu/a-glossary-of-terms/

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